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If you have to read or write data to excel files in Python, Openpyxl is the solution for creating Excel worksheets, loading workbooks, adding copying, rename or delete a sheet, read or write to rows and columns, merge unmerge cells, Python excel charts. It also provides features for formatting and styling sheets. This tutorial also shows how to read from excel sheet and convert data into numpy array and plot it with matplotlib. Openpyxl Engine is very helpful in Python Pandas. Hence for dealing with MS Excel files in Python, this is the most simple and practicle tutorial. Check it yourself.
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Here is an Ms Excel file which you are going to read with openpyxl. Create an excel file with the data on 'Sheet1' as shown in figure. Save this file in your Python Root folder and name it as "exceltest.xlsx". If you don't know where is your python root folder simply create a new folder "openpyxl" on your D: drive and save this file in that folder with name "exceltest.xlsx". In later case, full path of this file is "D:/openpyxl/exceltest.xlsx"
After creating this file and filling data in cells exactly as shown in figure now its time to read the file in Python.
If you see above mentioned code, that means workbook is successfully loaded and you have created a reference "wb" to your excel file. From onwards you will access this file with the help of this reference. Next step is to work with sheets. An excel spreadsheet has 3 Sheets by default and they are named as Sheet1, Sheet2 and Sheet3 respectively.
To get information about total number of sheets in a workbook and their names we use the function get_sheet_names()
>>>wb.get_sheet_names()['Sheet1', 'Sheet2', 'Sheet3']
Change sheet names to First, Second and Third respectively and save the file. Load the file again by running through steps 1 to 4. Call get_sheet_names function again
>>>wb.get_sheet_names()['First', 'Second', 'Third']
To access sheets on a workbook, you have to create reference to that particular sheet. This is just like you created reference wb to workbook. For creating reference to worksheet one of the most common functions used is get_sheet_by_name(). This function takes sheet name as an argument and creates a reference to that particular sheet which is used to access cells on the sheet and ultimately the data stored in the cells.
Here a reference sheet is created to Sheet1 of exceltest.xlsx file. And when you check the type of reference by typing type(sheet) the interpreter tells that it is a reference to sheet. If you want to know the title of sheet referenced by sheet,
A workbook has one active sheet. To know about active sheet
A summary of creating reference to Workbook and sheet, see code in Pycharm.
Cells in a workbook are accessed with the help of creating reference to them and value from a cell is extracted with that reference.
I will explain here three methods to read data from a cell.
The first one and very simple method is that you write the sheet reference sheet followed by square brackets with cell address written as a string in those brackets ['B4'] followed by a dot . and keyword value, see the code. The interpreter will simply write the value stored in that particular cell, B4 contains Sara in our example.
Second method is that we create a reference to particular cell and then access the data with the help of that reference.
Third method which is most widely used, specially by me is accessing cells with row and column numbers. The benefit is you can iterate through whole row or column or the multidimensional grid with the help of this method very easily.
First you have to have the row and column number of cell you want to access. Then you read data with the help of creating reference to that cell.
Type shows that b is a reference to a cell. For learning purpose always check the type of reference you are creating. It will enhance your understanding how openpyxl works.
If you want to print a whole row, key feature is that row will remain same while you iterate through column. Our exceltest file has 16 rows and 5 columns. To read and print a row a for loop is used. You can print any row with this method.
for c in range(1,6):
Row is printed but in the form of a Column. To print in a single line or row, use end=" " in print function.
for c in range(1,6):
print(d.value + end=' ')
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In the same way, when you have to print a whole column, use a for loop, keep the column same while iterate through each row with the help of for loop. To read column 2 from excel file,
for r in range(1,17):
After printing rows and columns, its time to print rows and columns simultaneously with python and openpyxl. This is reading whole sheet.
Using some formating for alignment and see all data i.e. rows and columns have been read from exceltest.xlsx
Amazing isn't it? Now you have learned how to read from excel file with the help of Openpyxl and PythonTutor.net.
More coming soon (Professor MN, Pythontutor.net)
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